Your IS220 Course Guide
The resources and information found here is intended to supplement course materials provided to you by your instructor. It is the result of a collaboration between your instructor and the seminary librarian.

Please consider this as a starting point for your assignments, an opportunity to dig deeper into what you're learning in this course, and a trusted source for additional support in your learning experience at Lancaster Theological Seminary.

If you find anything that is out of place or not working correctly, please inform the seminary librarian.
Course Reserves
This course has materials on course reserve. To see the full list of resources and their current availability click the link below:

Course Reserves for IS220 - Christianity and the Arts

Course reserves are available at the Circulation Desk. You may check out up to three items at a time for a three hour loan period. Reserves may be renewed up to two times if they are not on hold for another patron. If you check out a reserve within one hour of the library's closing, you may keep it overnight and return it within one hour of opening the following day. Overdue reserve items accumulate a fine of $1 per hour.
Art & Copyright Basics for Ministry Settings
Pictures and images convey meaning in a visually powerful way that words cannot. We want to use them in our worship bulletins, on our church websites, and in our social media posts, just to name a few examples. These are public venues, and the non-profit or religious status of your organization does not exempt you from abiding by copyright law. Let's make sure we're doing this responsibly.
  1. Assume any image you want to use is protected by U.S. or international copyright law. Unless you created it (by taking a photograph or drawing the original, for example), then it is almost certain that someone else owns the copyright.
  2. Know the creator and the source. Before using any image, you must keep a record of who created it and where you found it. Some images are posted by creators who go by a username instead of their legal name. This is fine as long as you also record all the information about the site where the image was posted. You need to know the URL of the image, the name of the website, and the date you accessed it.
  3. Check for licenses and permissions. Some creators publish their images on sites and attach a special license to it that grant permission for others to use the image publicly. The Creative Commons offers several licensing options that are popular and easy for creators to apply to their works. A license does not mean that a work is not covered by copyright. It is a permission that the creator grants to authorize use of their work by others.
  4. Use is prohibited? Choose another image. As much as you may like and want to use an image from a source that says any public use is prohibited, it is best to respect the creator and choose another image. In some cases, you could try contacting the creator to obtain special permission to use their work; however, this may not always be practical or the creator may deny your request.
  5. Follow the conditions of the license and give credit. Licenses are not all the same. Read the conditions to make sure your use falls within the bounds of what the license allows. When a creator needs to be given credit for the work, be sure to include that with your work. A caption with the image or a byline along the side of the image works nicely.
Additional Resources for Understanding Copyright:
Getting Permission from People in a Photograph
If you've taken a photograph that shows people, particularly their faces, then it is best to get their permission before using the photograph publicly. This is particularly important when photographing children or anyone who is unable to give direct consent and relies on the decision of someone charged with a power of attorney.

Sample release forms for churches are widely available online. Please check with your judicatory or non-profit organization (e.g., hospital, community center, etc.) to see if one already exists for your purpose.

Sources for Images in the Public Domain or in Creative Commons
  • Creative Commons Search - access to websites that collect and make available works with CC licenses applied to them.
  • Pixabay - stock photos contributed by a wide and active user community
  • Flickr - photo sharing website that offers users the option of applying a CC license to their photos; not all photos have a CC license; use the search filters to limit to photos with CC licenses
  • Google Image Search - to filter search results by license type, click Tools, then click the pull down menu for "Usage Rights" and select the license option that applies to your use
Art & Image Databases
Additional Museum and Image Websites
All of these websites allow users to download images for non-commercial use. Do give credit and link back to the original when using any images from these websites.
Music & Copyright Basics for Ministry Settings
For many faith traditions, music is essential to worship and other spiritual practices. It is important to consider copyright and licensing when reproducing musical scores or lyrics, performing musical compsitions, or playing recorded music in any public venue.
  1. What copyrights exist? The general principle of copyright is that a work is protected for the life of the author plus 70 years. After that, the work becomes public domain. There are separate copyrights for musical compositions and sound recordings. For any musical composition, there may be separate copyrights for the music and the lyrics. Some musical compositions, both protected by copyright and public domain, may be set in an arrangement that is copyrighted. 
  2. Is there an exception for my use? There are some exceptions to copyright that apply to in-person religious services. Non-dramatic musical compositions may be performed without permission and lyrics may be projected on a screen. If an in-person religious service is also being streamed or recorded for sharing online, these exceptions will not apply and the appropriate license or permission is needed.
  3. Does my organization have a license? Licenses are the most practical way to gain permission and access to copyrighted musical compositions and sound recordings for public venues. When using a license, it is important to understand what is covered and what is not. Read the terms carefully and follow them.
Using Someone Else's Media in a Public Venue
Once you've determined the copyright status of the music or other media, and whether there are exceptions or a license that covers your intended use, the next step is to verify your ownership permissions on the actual media you will be sharing. There are different standards for obtaining and using media for personal use as opposed to sharing in a public venue.
  1. Do you own a lawfully obtained copy of the music, video, or other media? A lawfully obtained copy is one that you have paid for or received as a freely granted gift. Photocopies, facsimilies, or other reproductions that are not authorized by the copyright holder are likely not considered lawfully obtained for the purposes of sharing in a public venue.
  2. If streaming from a subscription service, do you have permission to use subscriber content in a public venue? Streaming services for music and video are extrememly popular and each vendor enforces their own Terms & Conditions for subscribers. Review the Terms & Conditions carefully to see what is said about sharing, playing, or performing media in a public venue. Most vendors prohibit this use of their subscription streaming service. Some vendors make exceptions for use in educational settings.
Further Resources on Music & Copyright
  • One License - "We are the leading music licensing agency for congregational worship and we are proud to have a growing list of over 300 Member Publishers and their catalogs represented globally."
  • Christian Copyright Licensing International - "The [CCLI] Copyright License is tailored to your congregational singing activities and provides broad coverage for lyric storage, projections, song sheets, bulletin inserts, instrumental/vocal arrangements and service recordings."
  • Christian Copyright Solutions - "CCS is a leading authority on church music rights, providing performance licensing solutions that give churches the freedom to legally play, perform and stream more than 28 million Christian, secular, and holiday songs across all genres."
Public Domain, Creative Commons, and Open Access Music Resources Other Helpful Library Guides
Music Copyright Overview by William & Mary Music Library
Musical Compositions by William & Mary Music Library
Sound Recording Copyright by William & Mary Music Library
YouTube and Your Account
As a student with a account, you already have a YouTube account.

Logging in to your YouTube account:
  1. Go to
  2. Click the user sign in on the upper right corner of the site and proceed with logging in using your account credentials
    • If you are already logged into a YouTube account, click "Switch account" from the menu. If your account is not listed, click "Add account" and proceed with logging in using your account credentials.
Every student automatically has their own channel.

Accessing your YouTube Channel:
  1. To view your channel as a someone else would see it, click the user menu on the upper right corner of the site and select "Your channel"
  2. To live stream, upload videos, and manage all your videos (public, unlisted, and private):
    1. Click the button for YouTube Studio from your channel page -- OR --
    2. Click the user menu on the upper right corner of the site and select "YouTube Studio"
Create a Video
There are many different ways to create a video.
  • On a mobile device, record a video using your device's camera
    • Most smartphones will record a better-quality video using the rear camera instead of the front-facing camera
    • The YouTube mobile app supports a seamless record-edit-upload experience
  • On a computer, record your screen and/or feed from your computer's camera
  • Record digital video using a digital camera or digital camcorder and transfer the file to your computer
Pay attention to audio quality.

A dedicated microphone or headset connected to your recording device will usually boost the audio captured in your recording.

Editing may be necessary to give your video a finished look.

Simple editing includes clipping the beginning and end and adding a title frame and/or end credits.
Slightly more advanced editing includes special effects, transitions, and adding a music track or voiceover.

Save your video in a format supported by YouTube, like MPEG4 or MOV.
Privacy Options
YouTube's privacy settings give you complete control over who sees your video.

Any time you upload a new recording or go live, YouTube offers three privacy options:
  1. Public - anyone can see it and it is posted to the public channel; subscribers are alerted
    • Use this setting when you want your video to be discoverable by anyone on the Internet
  2. Unlisted - only people with the direct link will be able to access
    • Recommended setting for videos made for coursework; professors and classmates will need the link to access your video
  3. Private - only viewable by you
    • Use this setting for videos you're storing and aren't ready for anyone to see; sharing is possible by inviting YouTube users directly, which requires a YouTube login by the person you've shared the video with  
Upload a Video to YouTube
Using YouTube's Website on a Computer:
  1. Confirm you are signed in to the correct account, indicated by the user menu picture in the upper right corner of the screen
  2. Tap the video camera icon and select “Upload Video”
  3. Use the popup window that appears to drag-and-drop your video file or click “Select File” to open a file explorer window to find and select your video file
  4. Add details for your video
    1. Add a title
    2. Give it a brief description
    3. Audience: Unless your assignment is designed for children or youth, it is not made for kids and does not need an age restriction
    4. Click Next
  5. Video elements are not generally used; click next
  6. Set the visibility of your video to an appropriate level (unlisted recommended)
  7. Click “Save” when finished
  8. Select “Videos” from the menu on the left to view the progress of your upload and access it when it is finished.
Using the YouTube Mobile App:
  1. Confirm you are signed in to the correct account (individual or brand), indicated by the user menu picture in the upper right corner of the screen
  2. Tap the video camera icon
  3. Record a new video -OR- Scroll through your video library to find the video you want to upload; tap it to select
  4. The video will load in a simple editor. 
    1. Trim (scissors): Adjust the blue bars to where you want the video to start and stop
    2. Filter (magic wand): Apply a filter to make the picture look different
    3. Music (music note): Add music to your video
    4. Tap Next in the upper right corner when done
  5. Finalize the details of your video
    1. Tap the Title space to give it a title
    2. Tap the Description space to give it a description
    3. Set the privacy to an appropriate level (unlisted recommended)
    4. Tap upload in the upper right corner
  6. The video will go through an uploading and processing phase. The time will depend on how long the video is. Swipe down on the screen to update when the video is finished uploading and processing to see it in your list of videos.
Sharing YouTube Videos
To share a video, you simply need to copy the URL of the video and share with your professor and/or classmates. There are many ways to get the URL. Do make sure you are on the video's YouTube page, not the video's information page in YouTube Studio.

If you are creating multiple videos for a single assignment or project, it may be helpful to collect them all in a playlist. This generates one URL for an entire list of videos instead of having to share individual URLs for each video.

See this tutorial from YouTube about creating a playlist.
Free Video Recording and Editing Apps
  • Camera: app included with Windows 10 good for recording
  • Photos: app included with Windows 10 supports basic video editing
  • QuickTime Player: app included with Mac OSX supports both camera and screen recording
  • Photo Booth: app included with Mac OSX supports camera recording
  • iMovie: app included with Mac OSX for video editing
  • Camera: app included with iOS for recording video
  • iMovie: Apple's video editor also available for iPhone and iPad
  • Clips: app included with iOS for creating and sharing short videos
  • YouTube: mobile app supports video recording and editing
  • Camera: app included with Android for recording video
  • YouTube: mobile app supports video recording and editing
For more suggestions, try these websites for recommendations: